Manganese Ore

The main ore for Manganese is Pyroluste (MnO2).  According to the International Manganese Institute in Paris, the worldwide reserve of Manganese Ore is several billion tons, of which, only about 680 million tons is high grade material.  The main sources of Manganese Ore with higher grades are Australia, South Africa, Brazil, and Gabon.  These countries supply about 90% of the supply to the international market.  China and the USA produce mostly low grade material so have to import the vast majority of their high grade material requirements.  About half of the world supply of Manganese Ore is controlled by three companies.